Residential Buildings

MULTIFAMILY INVESTING TERMINOLOGY

Are you a Multifamily Investor or wanting to start buying Apartment Buildings?

Here are some helpful terms and definitions
related to Multifamily Investing.

ABP – All Bills Paid:

Property pays for all utilities.

ALURA – A Land Use Restrictions Agreement:

Seller bought the property and received tax credits and now there is a limit on the amount of $ a tenant can make. You will have a harder time selling this type of property.

AMORTIZATION PERIOD:

Number of years it will take you to repay the loan. Typically 20-30 years.

ASSET MANAGER:

Manages the property management company. Fee is typically 1.5-2% to the asset manager.

BEST & FINAL:

Process whereby a seller down-selects buyers to a smaller group and asks them to submit their best and final offer.

BOV – Broker Opinion of Value:

Broker provides this to a seller when the broker is trying to get the listing to sell the property.

BUYER BROKER:

A broker representing the buyer.

CAPITAL COSTS:

Costs can be capitalized over x# or years for tax purposes. Example: replace an AC unit.

CAP RATE:

A cap rate measures a property’s rate of return for a single year without taking into account debt on the asset.

CASH FLOW:

Buy for cash flow and pay market price.

DD – Due Diligence:

Inspecting the property’s exterior and interior to determine the condition and deferred maintenance (required maintenance that the current seller has not performed); also includes lease audit.

DEFERRED MAINTENANCE (DM):

Required maintenance that has not been performed.

DISPOSITION:

Disposing or selling of a property.

DOOR:

Industry term used instead of Unit.

ECONOMIC VACANCY:

This is the % that is not being collected against the market rents. Includes vacancy, bad debt/non-payment, actual rents vs. market rents.

HARD MONEY:

Money that the seller keeps if you walk away from a deal. Hard money can be at time of contract, after due diligence, or any other time agreed upon.

JV – Joint Venture:

Sponsoring a deal with one or more other people.

KP/GUARANTOR:

    • Key Principal – Signs on the loan+ equity

    • Guarantor – Signs on the loan, but no equity

LEVERAGE:

Using other money such as a loan.

LISTING BROKER:

The broker that has the property listed.

LOI – Letter of Intent:

Non-binding offer to purchase – 1 or 2 pages with key terms.

MAINTENANCE EXPENSES:

Costs are expensed for tax purposes. For example, fix an AC unit.

NOi:

Net Operating Income

OA – Operating Agreement:

Most deals are created with a LLC governing how the LLC’s business will be operated.

OM – Offering Memorandum:

Broker document describing the property.

PFS – Personal Financial Statement:

Has your assets and liabilities; net worth.

PPM – Private Placement Memorandum:

Private offering used to raise money from investors.

PRIMARY MARKET:

5 million or more people, but also need to look at the investment activity. For example, Detroit has more than 5 million people, but low investment so it is considered a secondary market.

PRINCIPAL PAYDOWN:

We call this our “personal piggy bank”. Every month when your tenants pay their rent, they pay off a portion of any financing used to purchase the property creating additional equity in the property as they pay down your loan.

PRINCIPAL PROTECTION:

Multifamily Investments are secured by their cash flow and also hazard insurance that even covers the income the properties generate if disaster hits. Are your other investments secured?

PROFORMA/UNDERWRITING:

Industry term referring to financially analyzing investment real estate.

PROOF OF FUNDS:

Account statements (excluding retirement) showing liquidity to close the deal.

PROPERTY TRADED FOR:

Term used to represent what a property sold for.

PSA – Purchase and Sale Agreement:

Contract between the buyer and seller.

RECOURSE VS. NON RECOURSE LOAN:

    • Recourse – personally liable

    • Non-Recourse – not personally liable

RE-TRADE:

After due diligence, the buyer goes back to the seller asking for items to be fixed and/ or a credit to fix deferred maintenance items.

REVERSION CAP RATE:

Cap rate you think at time of sale for the property.

RR – Rent Roll:

Lists all tenants; their lease amount and lease start/end date.

RISK FEE:

A fee charged to a tenant that has a lower credit score.

RUBS – Ratio Utility Bills System:

Billing back the tenants for utilities.

SA – Subscription Agreement:

Application by an investor to join a limited partnership (LLC) for real estate investing.

SECONDARY MARKET:

2-5 million people, but also need to look at investment activity. For example, Austin has less than 2 million people, but is considered secondary due to investment activity.

SYNDICATION:

Sponsor raises funds from a group of people.

T l2:

Trailing 12 P&L (Profit & Loss).

T 3:

Trailing 3 P&L (Profit & Loss).

TAX BENEFITS:

Mutlifamily real estate has some huge tax advantages that create “tax-advantaged income”. Through the use of depreciation, 1031 exchanges, and self-directed IRAs, you can have some of the most favorable income tax treatments of any asset class.

TERTIARY MARKET:

Less than 2 million people.

WORKING CAPITAL:

Funds used for future capital items (rule of thumb= 1 month of rents).

YIELD MAINTENANCE:

A prepayment penalty that, in the event the borrower pays off a loan before maturity, allows the lender to attain the same yield as if the borrower had made all scheduled mortgage payments until maturity.

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